In Hideaki Anno's 1998 movie Love & Pop, the main character, a 16-year-old high school girl named Hiromi, goes on subsidized dates in order to purchase a ring she adores.Her parents do not pay much attention to her and Hiromi often hangs out with her three closest friends who have been going on subsidized dates.Drawing from formal in-depth interviews with 30 male clients and 12 young women who provided CD, cyber ethnography of a major online CD forum, informal conversations with CD participants and offline participant observations of various types of non-commercial and non-sexual social gatherings amongst groups of CD participants from the period between March 2010 and December 2012, this thesis examines why and how individuals come to be involved in CD, how they form intimacies in the context of CD and the nature of these intimacies.

This thesis examines the factors that facilitate CD participants to transform an impersonal and bounded commercial relationship to a genuine and unbounded interpersonal and/or romantic relationship.

This thesis concludes that although CD relationships may be ephemeral, precarious and founded on economic elements, so too are many conventional relationships in modern society.

Typically, it is perceived as an extension of Japan's growing focus on materialism, much of which is what critics claim is the cause of enjo-kōsai.

Critics worry that girls involved in enjo-kōsai will grow up to be unfit wives and mothers.

means "compensated dating" and is the Japanese language term for the practice of older men giving money and/or luxury gifts to attractive women for their companionship or possibly for sexual favors.

The female participants range from school girls (aka JK business) to housewives.

Only later does she stop when a friend or individual intervenes and informs her of the potential risks and consequences of her behavior.

Several examples from films and television series are listed below.

Feminists such as Chizuko Ueno point out that the accidental access of girls to this dating market was not a matter of ethics, but of probability.

Sooner or later, these girls and young women would, in a desire for financial independence, tap into this market for their own empowerment.

Anthropologist Laura Miller argues in her research that the majority of enjo-kōsai dates consists of groups of girls going with a group of older men to a karaoke bar for several hours and being paid for their time.