The current standard is that any person under the age of 25 who wants to remain physically active and has symptoms of instability should have his/her ACL reconstructed.

Many people assume that boys are more susceptible to ACL injury, but this is incorrect.

In addition, along with other bony and soft tissues structures within the joint, it resists the two bones from pivoting or rotating around each other during physical activities. Under what circumstances would a child need ACL repair?

ACL injuries in both the pediatric and adult patient populations occur in similar fashion.

hamstring tendons) that are folded over and then attached to the tibia and femur via various methods in the general vicinity of the old ligament (non-anatomic).

The ACL, in actuality, is comprised of two intertwined ligaments (double bundle) that react and move independently of one another as the knee is flexed and extended. Freddie Fu of the University of Pittsburgh has pioneered the research and methods of recreating the double-bundle ACL reconstruction.

Jump training protocols or plyometrics help build core muscles, emphasize lower extremity muscle balancing, and teach safer landing techniques.

Hopefully, school and recreational programs will implement more focused training that will include ACL prevention education in the future.

Trauma typically occurs from a sudden decelerating, angular and/or pivoting injury to the knee.

Contrary to popular belief, these injuries are more commonly a result of non-contact mechanisms – the person suddenly plants his/her foot down on the ground, the knee angulates and the upper body twists generating forces greater than the ligament can withstand, rather than from blunt trauma, such as a tackle in football or soccer. Most often, pediatric ACL injuries occur during sports, such as football, soccer, basketball, lacrosse and volleyball.

In addition, anatomic variations, hormonal fluctuations and conditioning have been implicated.

There is current evidence that pre-season training programs can help reduce knee injuries.

Back then, typical ACL reconstruction techniques required placement of a tissue graft that often was placed or secured in areas of the femur and tibia that were active sites of growth in developing children, called growth plates.