To provide proper economics the process should include monetary incentives from the electricity and fuel entities that will most benefit from the improved efficiencies.

Keywords: KSAAC, electric peak reduction, peak energy efficiency ratio, sensible cooling, energy efficiency, window air conditioner, room air conditioner (RAC), minisplit air conditioner, air movement efficiency, dry climate, wet climate, evaporator airflow, condenser airflow, Sensible EER, EER, T1, T3. i Chapter 2: Executive Summary Introduction Methodology Purpose Project Outcomes Project Work Flow Conclusions Recommendations Benefits to Entities within the Kingdom... 9 TABLE 5 UNIT SIZE, TYPE AND NUMBER PER HOUSEHOLD TABLE 6 OPERATING MODES, EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS, AND SAVINGS POTENTIAL TABLE 7 AIR CONDITIONER LOADS AND CONSUMPTION BY MULTIPLE ANALYSIS METHODS TABLE 8 NUMBER OF UNITS IN THE SAMPLE TABLE 9 COOLING ENERGY CONSUMPTION DETAIL FROM SAMPLED BILLING DATA TABLE 10 COOLING ENERGY CONSUMPTION SUMMARY FROM SAMPLED BILLING DATA TABLE 11 SCENARIO A ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER AIR CONDITIONER BY REGION TABLE 12 SCENARIO B - - HIGHER USE ESTIMATE ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER AIR CONDITIONER BY REGION TABLE 13 SCENARIO C - - HIGHEST USE ESTIMATE ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER AIR CONDITIONER BY REGION TABLE 14 DISTRIBUTION CHAIN MARKUPS TABLE 15 ESTIMATED COMPONENT COSTS TABLE 16 WINDOW AC LABORATORY INSTRUMENTATION TABLE 17 DATA LIST FOR LABORATORY TESTS TABLE 18 ADDITIONAL MINI SPLIT LABORATORY DATA POINTS TABLE 19 AIR CONDITIONER AVERAGE CONSUMPTION FOR RESIDENTIAL ACS IN SAUDI ARABIA TABLE 20 COST INCREASE ESTIMATES FOR PROTOTYPE DESIGN MODIFICATIONS TABLE 21 BASELINE COSTS AND INCREMENTAL COSTS BY EER TABLE 22 LIFETIME ENERGY COSTS BY EER TABLE 23 ENERGY SAVINGS AND POLLUTION REDUCTIONS FROM PROPOSAL BY YEAR TABLE 24 POTENTIAL BENEFITS FROM IMPLEMENTATION TABLE 25 PROPOSED STANDARDS v Table of Figures FIGURE 1 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION BENEFITS...

AIRFLOW MINI- SPLIT (T3) FIGURE 27 SIMULATION RESULTS - - EER VS.

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These challenges translate into less financially viable and available efficiency improvements for window units.

Based on the technical results, the team recommends that the Kingdom implement strict standards enforcement and upon adequate notice and development time, implement increased minimum efficiencies at high temperatures.

FIN DENSITY MINI- SPLIT (T3) FIGURE 35 EVAPCOND SIMULATION EVAPORATOR COIL REFRIGERANT CIRCUIT AND VELOCITY GRAPHIC INPUT FIGURE 36 EVAPCOND SIMULATION CONDENSER COIL REFRIGERANT CIRCUIT AND VELOCITY GRAPHIC INPUT FIGURE 37 MINI- SPLIT AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION BASELINE EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW FIGURE 38 MINI- SPLIT AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION INCREASED EVAPORATOR AIRFLOW FIGURE 39 MINI- SPLIT AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION BASELINE EVAPORATOR FIGURE 40 MINI- SPLIT AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION PROPOSED EVAPORATOR FIGURE 41 MINI- SPLIT AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION BASELINE CONDENSER (ACTUAL LIQUID HEADER COULD NOT BE MODELED IN EVAPCOND) FIGURE 42 MINI- SPLIT AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION CONDENSER WITH INFILLED ROWS FIGURE 43 MINI- SPLIT AC EVAPCOND SIMULATIONS PROPOSED TALL CONDENSER FIGURE 44 WINDOW AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION BASELINE EVAPORATOR FIGURE 45 WINDOW AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION PROPOSED EVAPORATOR BASED ON VELOCITY PROFILE FIGURE 46 WINDOW AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION BASELINE CONDENSER FIGURE 47 WINDOW AC EVAPCOND SIMULATION PROPOSED CONDENSER FIGURE 48 WINDOW AC INDOOR AIRFLOW TESTING APPARATUS FIGURE 49 INDOOR FAN INLET WITH SMOOTHED INLET TRANSITIONS vi FIGURE 50 INDOOR FAN HOUSING WITH SMOOTHED OUTLET TRANSITIONS FIGURE 51 REVERSED CONDENSER FAN ORIENTATION FIGURE 52 WINDOW AC CONDENSER AIRFLOW DISTRIBUTION ORIGINAL CONFIGURATION FIGURE 53 WINDOW AC CONDENSER AIRFLOW DISTRIBUTION REVERSED CONFIGURATION FIGURE 54 US (LEFT) AND SAUDI ARABIA BASELINE (RIGHT) MINI SPLIT EVAPORATOR COILS FIGURE 55 MINI SPLIT CONDENSER FAN EXHAUST DIFFUSER FIGURE 56 WINDOW AC PROTOTYPE INDOOR FAN INLET MODIFICATION FIGURE 57 WINDOW AC PROTOTYPE INDOOR FAN OUTLET SMOOTHING FIGURE 58 WINDOW AC PROTOTYPE INDOOR FAN OUTLET MODIFICATION FIGURE 59 WINDOW AC PROTOTYPE ENLARGED CONDENSER AIR INLET AREA FIGURE 60 MINI SPLIT AC PROTOTYPE INDOOR FAN INLET MODIFICATION FIGURE 61 MINI SPLIT AC PROTOTYPE LESS RESTRICTIVE CONDENSER GRILLE FIGURE 62 US MODEL MINI SPLIT EVAPORATOR COIL FIGURE 63 MINI SPLIT AC PROTOTYPE EVAPORATOR COIL ENLARGED FIGURE 64 MINI SPLIT AC PROTOTYPE CONDENSER COIL HEIGHT INCREASED AND FAN REPOSITIONED FIGURE 65 WINDOW AC PROTOTYPE CONDENSER COIL ORIENTATION PROBLEM FIGURE 66 WINDOW UNITS PERFORMANCES AT T FIGURE 67 WINDOW UNITS PERFORMANCES AT T FIGURE 68 PROTOTYPE MINI- SPLITS PERFORMANCE AT T FIGURE 69 PROTOTYPE MINI- SPLITS PERFORMANCE AT T FIGURE 70 PROTOTYPE MINI- SPLITS CAPACITIES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE FIGURE 71 WINDOW AC LIFETIME SAVINGS AND INCREASED INITIAL COST FIGURE 72 MINI SPLIT AC LIFETIME SAVINGS AND INCREASED INITIAL COST FIGURE 73 EFFICIENCY DEGRADATION BETWEEN R- 22 AND R- 410A VS.

TEMPERATURE FIGURE 74 EFFICIENCY DEGRADATION BETWEEN R- 22 AND ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS FIGURE 75 CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTIONS BY YEAR FIGURE 76 POTENTIAL BENEFITS FROM IMPLEMENTATION FIGURE 77 SAUDI PEAK LOAD FIGURE 78 SAUDI ELECTRIC LOAD DURATION CURVE FIGURE 79 REGIONAL LOAD VS.

AIRFLOW MINI- SPLIT (T3) FIGURE 25 SIMULATION RESULTS TOTAL CAPACITY VS.

AIRFLOW MINI- SPLIT (T1) FIGURE 26 SIMULATION RESULTS TOTAL CAPACITY VS.

Due to their confined size and low cost, window units are more challenging than minisplit units.

Zamil s higher efficiency 17,500 BTU window units have T1 EERs of 9.2 and 8.9 (18.5% and 15.7% energy savings respectively).

The results from laboratory testing demonstrated the potential for efficiency improvement of up to 36 percent and peak demand reductions of up to 26 percent on mini-split units.